目 录

Outline

总叙------------------------------------1

At Home, Be Dutiful to My Parents

入则孝----------------------------------2

Standards for a Younger BrotherWhen Away from Home

出则弟----------------------------------3

Be Cautious in My Daily Life

谨--------------------------------------4

Be Trustworthy

信--------------------------------------5

Love All Equally

泛爱众----------------------------------6

Be Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion

亲仁------------------------------------7

After All the Above Are Accomplished, I Should Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve My Cultural and Spiritual Life

余力文学--------------------------------8

总叙 Outline

dìzǐguī shèngrénxùn shǒuxiàotì cìjǐnxìn

弟子规 圣人训 首孝弟 次谨信

Di Zi Gui or Standards for Being a Good Student and Child33 is a book that was taught by Chinese saints and sages of the ancient past. The book first teaches us how to be dutiful to our parents, and how to be respectful and loving to our siblings.34 It then teaches us how to be cautious with all people, matters, and objects in our daily lives; how to be a trustworthy person; and to believe in the teachings of the ancient saints and sages.35

《弟子规》是中国古圣先贤的教诲。首先它教导我们该怎么孝顺父母和尊重敬爱我们的兄弟姐妹。然后它教我们在日常生活中,对所有人、事、物,要如何保持小心谨慎,要我们做一个有信用的人,教我们要相信古圣先贤的教诲。

fànàizhòng érqīnrén yǒuyúlì zéxuéwén

泛爱众 而亲仁 有余力 则学文

Furthermore, it teaches us to love all equally, and to be close to and learn from people of virtue and compassion. Only when we have accomplished all the above can we then study further and learn literature and art to improve the quality of our cultural and spiritual lives.

接着它教导我们应该要平等的去爱护一切众生,要亲近仁慈、有德行的人,向他们学习。我们必须先把自己本份内的责任都做到了,如还有剩余的时间和精力,才可以更进一步学习研究文学艺术,来提升自己的精神生活质量。

33 Sourced from Analects of Confucius, Book I, Chapter 6. It was taught by Confucius, Mencius, and other Chinese saints and sages of the ancient past.摘自于《论语》─学而第一篇第六章,是孔子,孟子以及其他中国古圣先贤所教导的。
34 “Xiao” and “Ti” have been the very foundation of Chinese culture for five thousand years. Xiao (孝) means to be dutiful to one’s parents with affection, and to understand the basic relationship of grandparents, parents and self. In ideogram form, xiao has two components – the top part of xiao is the top portion of the word elder (老) and the bottom part is the word son (子). Combined into one, it implies that the older generation and the younger generation are one: there should be no gap between them. In Buddhism, the meaning is further extended. Outside the family, the child should treat every male and female of the parents’ generation as if they were the child’s own father or mother. Ti (弟) means sincere fraternal love. Here the term refers to the principle and standard of conduct between brothers not only when they are at home but when they are away from home. In Buddhism, its meaning also extends to include conduct towards all older persons of any generation. 孝、弟是中国五千年文化固有的基础。“孝”是孝顺。孝的概念是要了解祖父母、父母与自己的关系。把“孝”字分开来看,上面与“老”字相同,下面是一个“子”字;表示老一辈跟小一辈是同一体,不像现代人有代沟。更深一步的教导我们平时在外,遇见与父母同辈的长者,要如同对待自己的父母一样。“弟”是指兄弟姐妹之间彼此诚心的友爱。在此用来衡量做弟妹的在外对兄长应有的标准原则。同样的在佛法,我们对待同辈的长者也要如同我们自己兄长一样的敬爱。
35 “To believe in the teachings of the ancient saints and sages” means to truly practice and put the teachings of the ancient saints and sages into effect. “信”是必须要落实古圣先贤在经典里所教诲的,要做到才是真信。

入则孝

At Home, Be Dutiful to My Parents

在家要孝顺父母

fùmǔhū yìngwùhuǎn fùmǔmìng xíngwùlǎn

父母呼 应勿缓 父母命 行勿懒

When my parents call me, I will answer them right away. When they ask me to do something, I will do it quickly.

当父母在呼唤我,我要马上回答他们。父母命令我做的事,我要赶快去做。

fùmǔjiào xūjìngtīng fùmǔzé xūshùnchéng

父母教 须敬听 父母责 须顺承

When my parents instruct me, I will listen respectfully. When my parents reproach me, I will obey and accept their scolding. I will try hard to change and improve myself, to start anew.

对父母的教诲,我要恭敬的倾听。对父母的指责,我要顺从承受,并且还要努力的去改过自新。

dōngzéwēn xiàzéqìng chénzéxǐng hūnzédìng

冬则温 夏则凊 晨则省 昏则定

In the winter, I will keep my parents warm; in the summer, I will keep my parents cool. I will always greet my parents in the morning to show them that I care. At night I will always make sure my parents rest well.

冬天我要让父母的身体保持暖和,夏天能保持凉爽。每天早晨我要跟父母请安,表示我对父母的关怀,夜晚我要让父母睡的安稳。

chūbìgào fǎnbìmiàn jūyǒucháng yèwúbiàn

出必告 反必面 居有常 业无变

Before going out, I must tell my parents where I am going, for parents are always concerned about their children. After returning home, I must go and see my parents to let them know I am back, so they do not worry about me. I will maintain a permanent place to stay and lead a routine life. I will persist in whatever I do and will not change my aspirations at will.

出门前我应该先禀告父母,让他们知道我会去那里,因为父母时刻都在为子女们操心。回家后,我应该先拜见父母,让他们知道我已回来了,好让父母安心。居住的地方要固定,生活要有规律,做事要有恒心,不要随意更改自己的志向。

shìsuīxiǎo wùshànwéi gǒushànwéi zǐdàokuī

事虽小 勿擅为 苟擅为 子道亏

A matter might be trivial, but if it is wrong to do it or unfair to another person, I must not do it thinking it will bear little or no consequence.36 If I do, I am not being a dutiful child because my parents would not want to see me doing things that are irrational or illegal.

虽然只是一件小事,如果不合情理,不要任意去做。如果做了,就是不孝,因为父母不会愿意见到子女做不合情、理、法的事情。

wùsuīxiǎo wùsīcáng gǒusīcáng qīnxīnshāng

物虽小 勿私藏 苟私藏 亲心伤

Even though an object might be small, I will not keep it a secret from my parents. If I do, I will hurt my parents’ feelings.

东西虽小,不要私自收藏。如果私自收藏东西,父母知道后,一定会感到很伤心的。

36 For example, in Buddhism, it is considered breaking the precept of not stealing if I borrow a piece of paper or take someone’s pen without permission. It is considered breaking the precept of not killing if I kill an ant or mosquito. If I lie or talk about someone behind his or her back, I have broken the precept of not lying, etc. 譬如在佛法,没有经过同意拿别人纸、笔犯盗戒,杀蚂蚁、蚊虫犯杀戒,说谎、两舌犯妄语戒等等。

qīnsuǒhào lìwèijù qīnsuǒwù jǐnwèiqù

亲所好 力为具 亲所恶 谨为去

If whatever pleases my parents is fair and reasonable, I will try my best to attain it for them.38 If something displeases my parents, if within reason39 I will cautiously keep it away from them.

父母合情、合理、合法的爱好,我要尽力为他们准备好。在合理的范围内,如果有人、事、物令父母感到厌恶,我也要尽可能谨慎的为他们除去。

shēnyǒushāng yíqīnyōu déyǒushāng yíqīnxiū

身有伤 贻亲忧 德有伤 贻亲羞

When my body is hurt, my parents will be worried. If my virtues40 are compromised, my parents will feel ashamed.

如果我的身体受了伤,我的父母会担忧。如果我的德行不好,我的父母会因此而感到羞愧。

37 Parents will be saddened by the actions of a child who behaves secretively. If he/she behaves in such a way when he/she is still young, then he/she will probably twist the law, obtain bribes, and be a curse to his/her country and his/her people when he/she grows up. 父母感到悲伤,因为孩子从小就会私藏东西,将来长大后,可能就会做贪赃枉法、祸国殃民的事。

qīnàiwǒ xiàohénán qīnzēngwǒ xiàofāngxián

亲爱我 孝何难 亲憎我 孝方贤

When I have loving parents, it is not difficult to be dutiful to them. But if I can be dutiful to parents who hate me, only then will I meet the standards of the saints and sages for being a dutiful child.

如我的父母亲爱我,孝顺父母并不困难。但是如我的父母憎厌我,我还是能一样的孝敬他们,那才符合圣贤人行孝的标准。

38 If what pleases my parents is illegitimate or unreasonable, I should tactfully dissuade my parents, and tell them the reasons that they should not have it. 不合情、理、法的爱好,要婉转的劝导父母。 (卷)
39 I should lead my parents to proper views and understanding of things. 要诱导父母走向正知正见。
40 Virtues are standards and principles of one’s conduct. In China a man’s conduct is ruled by “Wu Chang” (五常) and “Ba De” (八德) . Wu Chang are the five moral principles: kindheartedness (仁), duties and obligations (义), proper etiquette (礼), wisdom (智), and trustworthiness (信). Ba De are the eight virtues: duty to parents (孝), respect for elders (悌), loyalty (忠), credibility (信), proper etiquette (礼), duties and obligations (义), a sense of honor (廉), and a sense of shame (耻).“德”是人的道德修养。德有五常八德。五常是仁、义、礼、智、信。八德是孝、悌、忠、信、礼、义、廉、耻。

qīnyǒuguò jiànshǐgēng yíwúsè róuwúshēng

亲有过 谏使更 怡吾色 柔吾声

When my parents do wrong, I will urge them to change. I will do it with a kind facial expression and a warm gentle voice.

父母有过失,要力劝他们更改。劝他们的时候,我们的表情要委婉,声音要柔和。

jiànbúrù yuèfùjiàn hàoqìsuí tàwúyuàn

谏不入 悦复谏 号泣随 挞无怨

If they do not accept my advice, I will wait until they are in a happier mood before I attempt to dissuade them again, followed by crying, if necessary, to make them understand. If they end up whipping me41 I will not hold a grudge against them.

如父母不接受我们的劝告,我们可以等父母心情好一点的时候,再次的劝他们。如果父母还是不肯接受,我们可以接着用哭泣的方式使父母觉悟。即使因此被父母鞭打,我们心里也绝不会起怨恨的心。

41 In ancient China, when a child did not obey the parents, the parents were allowed to discipline the child. If a child refused to be disciplined, the parents had the right to ask the authorities to have the child executed. 中国的古法,如孩子不听管教,父母有权惩罚他们,如果非常不听话,有权要求官府把孩子处死。

qīnyǒují yàoxiāncháng zhòuyèshì bùlíchuáng

亲有疾 药先尝 昼夜侍 不离床

When my parents are ill, I will taste the medicine first before giving it to them.42 I will take care of them night and day and stay by their bedside.

父母亲生病了,所喝的汤药,我们自己要先尝过。我们早晚都要在父母的床旁细心的服侍他们。

sāngsānnián chángbēiyè jūchùbiàn jiǔròujué

丧三年 常悲咽 居处变 酒肉绝

During the first three years of mourning after my parents have passed away, I will remember them with gratitude and feel sad often for not being able to repay them for their kindness in raising me. During this period I will arrange my home to reflect my grief and sorrow. I will also avoid festivities and indulgence in food and alcoholic drinks.

替父母守丧的三年期间,我们应该要常惦记着父母养育之恩未报而感到悲伤哽咽。在这段期间内,家里的布置应该有哀泣的气氛。我们应该要避免去游乐场所、参加喜庆典礼或者是大吃大喝。

42 Chinese people take herbal medicine prescribed by Chinese doctors. Herbs are boiled with water to make a liquid medicine. Before giving such medicine to one’s parents, a child should first taste it to ensure it is not too hot or too bitter. 古时候的中国用草药治病。把医生开的药方加水煮成药汤。子女要先替父母试尝药的温度与苦味,调理好后才端去给父母喝。

sāngjìnlǐ jìjìnchéng shìsǐzhě rúshìshēng

丧尽礼 祭尽诚 事死者 如事生

I will observe proper etiquette43 in arranging my parents’ funerals. I will hold the memorial ceremony and commemorate my parents’ anniversaries with utmost sincerity. I will serve my departed parents as if they were still alive44.

我们要依礼办理父母的丧事,要用至诚的心祭祀父母。我们侍奉已过世的父母要如同父母在世时一样。

出则弟

Standards for a Younger BrotherWhen Away from Home

在外做弟弟应有的标准原则

xiōngdàoyǒu dìdàogōng xiōngdìmù xiàozàizhōng

兄道友 弟道恭 兄弟睦 孝在中

If I am the older sibling, I will befriend the younger ones. If I am the younger sibling, I will respect and love the older ones. Only when I can maintain harmonious relationships with my siblings am I being dutiful to my parents.46

为人兄长要友爱自己的弟弟妹妹,弟弟妹妹应该要尊重敬爱自己的兄长。兄弟姐妹能和睦相处,就是在孝敬父母。

45 These standards also apply to a younger brother when he is at home.
这也是做弟弟妹妹在家应有的标准原则。
46 Parents are happy when their children get along with each other. This is one way children can show they are dutiful to their parents.父母知道儿女能和睦相处一定会很高兴,这也是儿女们尽孝道的一种方式。

cáiwùqīng yuànhéshēng yányǔrěn fènzìmǐn

财物轻 怨何生 言语忍 忿自泯

When I value my familial ties more than property and belongings, no resentment will come between me and my siblings. When I am careful with words and hold back hurtful comments, my feelings of anger naturally die out.

当兄弟姐妹懂得重视同胞的情义超过财物,彼此就不会为了争取财物而产生怨恨。如彼此说话都能谨慎、有耐心、能容忍,忿恨的心自然就熄灭了。

huòyǐnshí huòzuòzǒu zhǎngzhěxiān yòuzhěhòu

或饮食 或坐走 长者先 幼者后

Whether I am drinking, eating, walking, or sitting, I will let the elders go first; the younger ones should follow.

无论是吃、喝,还是在坐、在走,都应该要让长者先,幼者跟随在后。

zhǎnghūrén jídàijiào rénbùzài jǐjídào

长呼人 即代叫 人不在 己即到

When an elder is asking for someone, I will get that person for him right away. If I cannot find that person, I will immediately report back, and put myself at the elder’s service instead.

如长者在叫唤人,要立即代长者去叫。如那人不在,自己要马上回来向长者报告,并且要代替那人为长者服务。

chēngzūnzhǎng wùhūmíng duìzūnzhǎng wùxiànnéng

称尊长 勿呼名 对尊长 勿见能

When I address an elder, I should not call him by his given name.47 This is in accord with ancient Chinese etiquette. In front of an elder, I will never show off.

依中国古礼,称呼尊长不可以称他的名。在尊长前,不要卖弄自己的才能。

47 In ancient China, a male person had at least two names. The first name was the “given name”, which was given to him by his parents when he was born. A second name was given to him by his friends when he reached the age of 20, at a “Ceremony of the Hat” given in his honor to announce his coming-of-age. After that only his parents called him by his “given name”. Out of respect, everyone else, including the emperor, could only call him by his second name. The only exception was if he committed a crime. During sentencing, he would be called by his “given name”.
中国古时候男子有“名”、有“字”。“名”是指父母取的名。男子二十岁行【冠礼】,表示他已成人。朋友另外给他取个“字”就是“冠字”。
以后只有父母才能称他的“名”,其他人包括皇帝也只能称他的“字”,这是对他的尊重。唯一的例外是当他犯罪,在判刑的时候可以直呼他的名。

lùyùzhǎng jíqūyī zhǎngwúyán tuìgōnglì

路遇长 疾趋揖 长无言 退恭立

If I meet an elder I know on the street, I will promptly clasp my hands and greet him with a bow. If he does not speak to me, I will step back and respectfully stand aside.

在路上遇到我认识的长者,我应该要快速向前跟长者鞠躬敬礼。如果他不开口跟我说话,我应该恭敬的退立在一旁。

qíxiàmǎ chéngxiàjū guòyóudài bǎibùyú

骑下马 乘下车 过犹待 百步余

Should I be riding a horse48 and spot an elder I know walking, I will dismount and pay respect to the elder. If I am riding in a carriage49, I will stop, get out of the carriage, and ask if I can give the elder a ride. If I meet an elder passing by, I will stand aside and wait respectfully. I will not leave until the elder disappears from my sight.

当我正骑在马上,在路上遇到我认识的长者,我应该下马跟长者致敬。如我是乘坐在马车上,我就应该停住马车后下车跟长者先致敬,然后请问长者是否能载他一程。在路上遇到我认识的长者经过,我应该要恭敬站立在一旁等候,等长者走远见不到了,我才能离去。

48 In ancient China, most people used horses or carriages as their means of transportation. 中国古时候老百姓用马或马车作为交通工具。
49 See footnote 48. 请参考批注48。

zhǎngzhělì yòuwùzuò zhǎngzhězuò mìngnǎizuò

长者立 幼勿坐 长者坐 命乃坐

When an elder is standing, I will not sit. After an elder sits down, I sit only when I am told to do so.

当尊长还站立着,我不可以坐下。要等长者坐下后,长者叫我坐,我才能坐。

zūnzhǎngqián shēngyàodī dībùwén quèfēiyí

尊长前 声要低 低不闻 却非宜

Before an elder, I will speak softly. But if my voice is too low and hard to hear, it is not appropriate.

在尊长前,说话声音要低。如果太低,听不清楚,也不适宜。

jìnbìqū tuìbìchí wènqǐduì shìwùyí

进必趋 退必迟 问起对 视勿移

When meeting an elder, I will walk briskly towards him; when leaving, I will not exit in haste. When answering a question, I will look at the person who is asking me the question.

会见尊长,要快步走到他面前;离开时,动作不要太仓促。回答长者问题时,眼睛要正视长者。

shìzhūfù rúshìfù shìzhūxiōng rúshìxiōng

事诸父 如事父 事诸兄 如事兄

I will serve my uncles as if I am serving my parents.50 I will treat my cousins as if they are my own siblings.51

侍奉自己的伯叔或堂伯叔,要如同侍奉自己的父母一样。对待堂兄弟、表兄弟,也要如同对待自己的亲兄弟一样。

Be Cautious in My Daily Life

每日的生活行为要小心谨慎

zhāoqǐzǎo yèmiánchí lǎoyìzhì xīcǐshí

朝起早 夜眠迟 老易至 惜此时

I will get up each morning before my parents; at night, I will go to bed only after my parents have gone to sleep. When I realize that time is passing me by and cannot be turned back, and that I am getting older year by year, I will especially treasure the present moment.52

每天早晨我要比父母起的早,夜晚要等父母睡后,我才去睡。当我觉察到时间一去不返,自己一年一年的变老,就该格外珍惜眼前的光阴。

52 There is an old Chinese proverb: “A unit of time is as precious as a unit of gold, but you cannot buy back one unit of time with one unit of gold.” It means that time is really very precious, as no amount of money can buy time. 中国谚语说:「一寸光阴一寸金,寸金难买寸光阴」。意思是说时间非常珍贵,不是用金钱可以买到的。

chénbìguàn jiānshùkǒu biànniàohuí zhéjìngshǒu

晨必盥 兼漱口 便溺回 辄净手

When I get up in the morning, I will wash my face and brush my teeth. After using the toilet, I will always wash my hands.

早晨起床后要先洗脸、刷牙。上完厕所,要马上把手洗干净。

guānbìzhèng niǔbìjié wàyǔlǚ jùjǐnqiè

冠必正 钮必结 袜与履 俱紧切

I must wear my hat straight,53 and make sure the hooks54 of my clothes are tied. My socks and shoes should also be worn neatly and correctly.

帽子一定要戴端正,衣服的钮钩要打好结,袜子和鞋子要穿整齐。

53 Guan“冠”means hat. In ancient China, when a male wore a hat, it meant he had attained the age of an adult.“冠”是帽子。中国古时候男子头上带帽,表示他已成年。
54 In ancient China, in place of buttons, people used hooks. When dressed, hooks had to be tied. 中国古人衣服用衣钩,需要打结。

zhìguānfú yǒudìngwèi wùluàndùn zhìwūhuì

置冠服 有定位 勿乱顿 致污秽

I will always place my hat and clothes away in their proper places. I will not carelessly throw my clothes around, for that will get them dirty.

帽子和衣服要放在一个固定的地方,不要乱放,不然衣物会被弄脏。

yīguìjié búguìhuá shàngxúnfèn xiàchènjiā

衣贵洁 不贵华 上循分 下称家

It is more important that my clothes are clean, rather than how extravagant they are. I will wear only what is suitable for my station. At home, I will wear clothes according to my family traditions and customs.

穿的衣服要干净,是否华丽并不重要。穿着要适合自己的身分和地位。在家的穿著也要合乎传统和习惯。

duìyǐnshí wùjiǎnzé shíshìkě wùguòzé

对饮食 勿拣择 食适可 勿过则

When it comes to eating and drinking, I will not pick and choose my food. I will only eat the right amount; I will not over-eat.

对饮料和食物,不要挑剔。吃的份量要适中,不要过饱。

niánfāngshào wùyǐnjiǔ yǐnjiǔzuì zuìwéichǒu

年方少 勿饮酒 饮酒醉 最为丑

I am still young, I must not drink alcohol. When I am drunk, my behavior will turn ugly.

自己年纪还轻,不要学会喝酒。酒醉后的形象是非常丑陋的。

bùcōngróng lìduānzhèng yīshēnyuán bàigōngjìng

步从容 立端正 揖深圆 拜恭敬

I will always walk composed, with light and even steps. I will always stand up straight and tall. My bows will always be deep, with hands held in front and arms rounded. I will always pay my respect with reverence.55

走路时,步伐要轻松、要稳重。站立时,身体要端庄、要正直。作揖时,身体要弯的深,手臂要圆。礼拜他人时,要恭敬。

55 Bai“拜”means paying respect. In ancient China, people paid their respect to others by bowing, holding one hand over the other which is closed, or prostrating themselves on the ground.“拜”是礼敬。中国古时候屈身、拱手、下跪、以头叩地等礼节都称为拜。

wùjiànyù wùbǒyǐ wùjījù wùyáobì

勿践阈 勿跛倚 勿箕踞 勿摇髀

I will not step on doorsills or stand leaning on one leg. I will not sit with my legs apart or sprawled out. I will not rock the lower part of my body while standing or sitting down.

脚不要踏门坎。站立时,身体不要歪靠在一只脚。坐时两腿不要叉开或伸展。不要摇动身体的下部。

huǎnjiēlián wùyǒushēng kuānzhuǎnwān wùchùléng

缓揭帘 勿有声 宽转弯 勿触棱

I will always lift the curtain slowly,56 and quietly. I must leave myself ample space when I turn so I will not bump into a corner.

掀开门帘的时候要缓慢,不要出声音。转弯的时候要给自己足够的空间,不要去碰触到棱角。

56 In ancient China, curtains were made of bamboo strips woven together. They were used to shelter a room from view. 古时候“帘”是用切细的竹子编成的,挂在屋内可遮敝房间。

zhíxūqì rúzhíyíng rùxūshì rúyǒurén

执虚器 如执盈 入虚室 如有人

I will hold empty containers carefully as if they were full.57 I will enter empty rooms as if they were occupied.58

手握着空的容器,要如同满的时候一样小心谨慎。进入一个空的房间,要如同进入一个有人在的房间一样。

shìwùmáng mángduōcuò wùwèinán wùqīnglüè

事勿忙 忙多错 勿畏难 勿轻略

I will avoid doing things in a hurry, as doing things in haste will lead to many mistakes. I should not be afraid of difficult tasks, and I will not become careless when a job is too easy.

做事不要匆忙,做事太匆忙容易导致许多错误。不要怕担任艰难的工作,但也不要以为工作很容易,就轻视它,草率的去做。

57 Even if a container is empty, out of reverence to things whether living or not, one should treat it with respect and handle it with care. 虽然容器是空的,也要珍惜它。对所有一切众生,都要懂得爱惜。
58 In ancient China, a virtuous man always behaved properly, regardless of whether he was alone or with others. 君子绝不会因有人或无人在房间而改变他的行为、举止和态度。

dòunàochǎng juéwùjìn xiépìshì juéwùwèn

斗闹场 绝勿近 邪僻事 绝勿问

I will keep away from rowdy places. I will not ask about things that are abnormal or unusual.

避免去斗争或胡闹的场所,绝不过问邪恶或不正常的事情。

jiāngrùmén wènshúcúnjiāngshàngtáng shēngbìyáng

将入门 问孰存 将上堂 声必扬

When I am about to enter a main entrance, I must first ask if someone is inside. Before entering a room, I must first make myself heard, so that those inside know someone is approaching.

进入房子大门以前,要先问房里是否有人在。进入房间以前,一定要先把声音提高,让别人知道有人将要进来了。

rénwènshuí duìyǐmíng wúyǔwǒ bùfēnmíng

人问谁 对以名 吾与我 不分明

If someone asks who I am, I must give my name. To answer ‘It is me’ or ‘Me’ is not sufficient.

若是有人问是谁,告诉他自己的名字。回答【是我】,别人还是不能确认我是谁。

yòngrénwù xūmíngqiú tǎngbùwèn jíwéitōu

用人物 须明求 倘不问 即为偷

Before borrowing things from others, I must ask for permission. If I do not ask, it is stealing.

借用别人的物品,必须先得到别人的许可才可以拿来使用。如果事先没有问就拿来用,那就是在偷窃。

jièrénwù jíshíhuán hòuyǒují jièbùnán

借人物 及时还 后有急 借不难

When borrowing things from others, I will return them promptly. Later, if I have an urgent need, I will not have a problem borrowing from them again.

借用别人的物品,要按时归还给别人。以后如有急需,再借就不会有困难。

Be Trustworthy

要做一个值得别人信赖的人

fánchūyán xìnwéixiān zhàyǔwàng xīkěyān

凡出言 信为先 诈与妄 奚可焉

When I speak, honesty is important. Deceitful words and lies must not be tolerated.

只要我开口说话,就要讲信用。怎么可以用欺骗的言语或者是打妄语呢?

huàshuōduō bùrúshǎo wéiqíshì wùnìngqiǎo

话说多 不如少 惟其是 勿佞巧

Rather than talking too much, it is better to speak less. I will speak only the truth, I will not twist the facts.

话说太多,不如少说几句,要说真话,不要歪曲事实。

jiānqiǎoyǔ huìwūcí shìjǐngqì qièjièzhī

奸巧语 秽污词 市井气 切戒之

Cunning words, foul language, and philistine habits must be avoided at all costs.

奸诈狡猾的言语,肮脏丑恶的言词以及市井小人不良的习气一定要戒除。

jiànwèizhēn wùqīngyán zhīwèidì wùqīngchuán

见未真 勿轻言 知未的 勿轻传

What I have not seen with my own eyes, I will not readily tell to others. What I do not know for sure, I will not easily pass on to others.

如果不是自己亲眼所见,不要轻易的去告诉别人。尚未肯定过的事实,不要轻易的传说给别人听。

shìfēiyí wùqīngnuò gǒuqīngnuò jìntuìcuò

事非宜 勿轻诺 苟轻诺 进退错

If I am asked to do something that is inappropriate or bad, I must not agree to it. If I do, I will be doubly wrong.

如果不是件好事,不要轻易的承诺,不然无论我做还是不做,我都错了。

fándàozì zhòngqiěshū wùjíjí wùmóhū

凡道字 重且舒 勿急疾 勿模糊

I must speak clearly and to the point. I must not talk too fast or mumble.

只要说话,就该有重点,要说的舒畅,不要说的太快,也不要说的模糊不清。

bǐshuōcháng cǐshuōduǎn bùguānjǐ mòxiánguǎn

彼说长 此说短 不关己 莫闲管

Some like to talk about the good points of others, while some like to talk about the faults of others. If it is none of my business, I will not get involved.

别人的说长道短,如与自己无关,就不要去多管。

jiànrénshàn jísīqí zòngqùyuǎn yǐjiànjī

见人善 即思齐 纵去远 以渐跻

When I see others do good deeds, I must think about following their example. Even though my own achievements are still far behind those of others, I am getting closer.

见到别人行善,要马上想到向他们看齐。即使现在跟他们相距还差的很远,我已经开始慢慢的跟上了。

jiànrénè jínèixǐng yǒuzégǎi wújiājǐng

见人恶 即内省 有则改 无加警

When I see others do wrong, I must immediately reflect upon myself. If I have made the same mistake, I will correct it. If not, I will take extra care to not make the same mistake.

见到别人造恶,自己要实时反省。如果我犯有同样的过失,要马上把它改正。如果没有,我要更加以警惕自己不要去犯。

wéidéxué wéicáiyì bùrúrén dāngzìlì

唯德学 唯才艺 不如人 当自砺

When my morals, conduct, knowledge, and skills seem not as good as those of others, I will encourage myself to be better.

唯有当我自己的道德、品行、学问和才能、技艺不如别人,我该勉励自己努力的去改进。

ruòyīfú ruòyǐnshí bùrúrén wùshēngqī

若衣服 若饮食 不如人 勿生戚

If the clothes I wear, and the food I eat and drink are not as good as that of others, I should not be concerned.

如果只是自己的衣服和饮食不如人,不要为此而忧戚感到惭愧。

wénguònù wényùlè sǔnyǒulái yìyǒuquè

闻过怒 闻誉乐 损友来 益友却

If criticism makes me angry and compliments make me happy, bad company will come my way and good friends will shy away.

如我听到别人批评,就会生气;听到别人赞美,就会感到高兴;坏朋友会接踵而来,好朋友会远离我而去。

wényùkǒng wénguòxīn zhíliàngshì jiànxiāngqīn

闻誉恐 闻过欣 直谅士 渐相亲

If I am uneasy about compliments and appreciative of criticism, then sincere, understanding, and virtuous people will gradually come close to me.

如我听到别人赞叹,就起恐慌;听到别人批评,反而感到高兴;有诚信又能谅解我的道德人士,才会逐渐愿意与我亲近。

wúxīnfēi míngwéicuò yǒuxīnfēi míngwéiè

无心非 名为错 有心非 名为恶

If any mistake I make is inadvertent, it is merely a mistake. If it is done on purpose, however, it is an evil act.

如果自己无意犯了过失,那只是一个错误。如果是有意的,那就是在造恶。

guònénggǎi guīyúwú tǎngyǎnshì zēngyìgū

过能改 归于无 倘揜饰 增一辜

If I correct my mistake and do not repeat it, I no longer own the mistake. If I try to cover it up, I will be doubly wrong.

如果自己能把过失改正不再造,就不再有过失。如果自己犯了过失不承认,还想去掩饰它,那就是错上加错。

泛爱众

Love All Equally

平等的爱护一切众生

fánshìrén jiēxūài tiāntóngfù dìtóngzài

凡是人 皆须爱 天同覆 地同载

Human beings, regardless of nationality, race, or religion – everyone – should be loved equally. We are all sheltered by the same sky and we all live on the same planet Earth.

只要是人,不分国家、种族、宗教,都应该要平等的爱护。我们被同一个天空庇护着,我们同住在一个地球上。

xìnggāozhě míngzìgāo rénsuǒzhòng fēimàogāo

行高者 名自高 人所重 非貌高

A person of high ideals and morals is highly respected. What people value is not based on outside appearance.

有崇高理想及道德水平的人,名望自然就高。人们所重视的,并非在一个人的外表。

cáidàzhě wàngzìdà rénsuǒfú fēiyándà

才大者 望自大 人所服 非言大

A person’s outstanding abilities will naturally endow him with a good reputation. Admiration from others does not come from boasting or praising oneself.

才能出众的人,名望自然大。人们所服从的,绝非因为一个人会说大话。

yǐyǒunéng wùzìsī rénsuǒnéng wùqīngzī

己有能 勿自私 人所能 勿轻訾

If I am a very capable person, I should use my capabilities for the benefit of others. Other people’s competence should never be slandered.

如果自己有能力有才干,不要把自己的能力才干用作享受,要服务于大众。对别人的能力才干,不要轻易的毁谤。

wùchǎnfù wùjiāopín wùyàngù wùxǐxīn

勿谄富 勿骄贫 勿厌故 勿喜新

I will not flatter the rich, or despise the poor. I will not ignore old friends, only taking delight in new ones.

不要谄媚有财富的人,不要瞧不起贫苦的人。不要厌弃旧朋友,只喜欢新交的朋友。

rénbùxián wùshìjiǎo rénbùān wùhuàrǎo

人不闲 勿事搅 人不安 勿话扰

When a person is busy, I will not bother him with matters. When a person’s mind is not at ease, I will not bother him with words.

当别人正在忙,不要用事去打搅他。当别人的心正感到不安,不要用话去打扰他。

rényǒuduǎn qièmòjiē rényǒusī qièmòshuō

人有短 切莫揭 人有私 切莫说

If a person has a shortcoming, I will not expose it. If a person has a secret, I will not tell others.

别人的缺点和短处,不要故意去揭穿它。别人的私事和秘密,不要去说给别人听。

dàorénshàn jíshìshàn rénzhīzhī yùsīmiǎn

道人善 即是善 人知之 愈思勉

Praising the goodness of others is a good deed in itself. When people are being praised and approved of, they will be encouraged to try even harder.

称赞别人善,是一件善行。当别人知道自己被受肯定,就会愈加勉励自己要更加精进。

yángrénè jìshìè jízhīshèn huòqiězuò

扬人恶 即是恶 疾之甚 祸且作

Spreading rumors about the wrongdoings of others is a wrongdoing in itself. When the harm done has reached the extreme, misfortunes will surely follow.

宣扬别人恶,是件恶事。做多了,当伤害达到了极处,灾祸就跟着降临了。

shànxiāngquàn déjiējiàn guòbùguī dàoliǎngkuī

善相劝 德皆建 过不规 道两亏

When I encourage another to do good, both of our virtues are built up. If I do not tell another of his faults, we are both wrong.

如我们能互相劝勉向善,彼此的德行都会因此而建立。如朋友有过失,我不告诉他,我们双方都是错的。

fánqǔyǔ guìfēnxiǎo yǔyíduō qǔyíshǎo

凡取与 贵分晓 与宜多 取宜少

Whether I take or give, I need to know the difference between the two. It is better to give more and take less.

无论是“拿”还是“给”,要知道它们有什么不同。给的要多,拿的要少。

jiāngjiārén xiānwènjǐ jǐbúyù jísùyǐ

将加人 先问己 己不欲 即速已

What I ask others to do, I must first ask myself if I would be willing to do. If it is not something I would be willing to do, I will not ask others to do it.

我要求别人做的事,要先问自己愿不愿意做。自己不愿意做的事,不要要求别人去做。

ēnyùbào yuànyùwàng bàoyuànduǎn bàoēncháng

恩欲报 怨欲忘 报怨短 报恩长

I must repay the kindness of others and let go of my resentments. I will spend less time holding grudges and more time paying back the kindness of others.

别人给我的恩惠,我一定要报答。我对别人的怨恨,一定要忘记。我报怨的时间要越短越好,想报答别人恩惠的心要长远。

dàibìpú shēnguìduān suīguìduān cíérkuān

待婢仆 身贵端 虽贵端 慈而宽

When I am directing maids and servants, I will act honorably and properly. I will also treat them kindly and generously.

对待侍女和仆人,自己要端庄有礼。虽然自己的端庄有礼很重要,待他们要慈祥、要宽厚。

shìfúrén xīnbùrán lǐfúrén fāngwúyán

势服人 心不然 理服人 方无言

If I use my influence to make them submissive, their hearts will not be with me. If I can convince them with sound reasoning, they will have nothing to object to.

如果自己利用权势使他们服从,他们心里会不以为然。如果我能以理来劝服他们,他们才会无话可说。

亲仁

Be Close to and Learn from People of Virtue and Compassion

亲近仁慈以及有德行的人向他们学习

tóngshìrén lèibùqí liúsúzhòng rénzhěxī

同是人 类不齐 流俗众 仁者希

We are all human, but we are not the same. Most of us are ordinary; only a very few have great virtues and high moral principles.

我们虽然都是人,但不同类。大多数人都很平凡,唯有极少数的人,有至大至善的品行道德。

guǒrénzhě rénduōwèi yánbúhuì sèbúmèi

果仁者 人多畏 言不讳 色不媚

A truly virtuous person is greatly respected by others. He will not be afraid to speak the truth and he will not fawn on others.

果真是一位有品德的人,人们会很敬畏他。他不怕说真话,也不会去奉承或讨好别人。

néngqīnrén wúxiànhǎo dérìjìn guòrìshǎo

能亲仁 无限好 德日进 过日少

If I can be close to and learn from people of great virtue and compassion, I will benefit immensely. My virtues will grow daily and my wrongdoings will lessen day by day.

如果我能亲近又能跟随一位有德行的人学习,我能得到无限的好处。我的德行日日会有进步,过失天天会减少。

bùqīnrén wúxiànhài xiǎorénjìn bǎishìhuài

不亲仁 无限害 小人进 百事坏

If I choose not to be close to and learn from people of great virtue, I will suffer a great loss. People without virtue will get close to me and nothing I attempt will succeed.

如果我不肯亲近又不肯跟有德行的人学习,我的损失是很大的。没有德行的小人,会跟我越来越接近,到时无论我做什么事都不会成功。

余力学文

After All the Above Are Accomplished, I Should Study Further and Learn Literature and Art to Improve My Cultural and Spiritual Life

当本份的事情做好了再学习研究文学艺术来提升自己的精神生活质量

búlìxíng dànxuéwén zhǎngfúhuá chénghérén

不力行 但学文 长浮华 成何人

If I do not actively practice what I have learned, but continue to study on the surface, even though my knowledge is increasing, it is only superficial. What kind of person will I be?

如果我不积极去落实自己所学,只是在表面上作功夫,继续不断的学文,那只能使我浮而不实。我将会成为一个什么样的人呢?

dànlìxíng bùxuéwén rènjǐjiàn mèilǐzhēn

但力行 不学文 任己见 昧理真

If I do apply my knowledge diligently, but stop studying, I will only do things based on my own opinion, thinking it is correct. In fact, what I know is not the truth.

但是如果我积极去落实自己所学,却不肯再继续深造,任凭自己的见解,信以为真,其实我对事实的真相还是并不明了。

dúshūfǎ yǒusāndào xīnyǎnkǒu xìnjiēyào

读书法 有三到 心眼口 信皆要

There are methods to study correctly. They involve concentration in three areas: my mind, my eyes, and my mouth. To believe in what I read is equally important.

读书的方法,必须把注意力集中到三点:到心、到眼、到口。对圣贤人的教诲,要相信、要照着去做,这都是很重要的。

fāngdúcǐ wùmùbǐ cǐwèizhōng bǐwùqǐ

方读此 勿慕彼 此未终 彼勿起

When I begin to read a book, I will not think about another. If I have not completed the book, I will not start another.

刚开始读一本书,心里不要去想着另一本书。这本书还没读完,不要开始读另一本书。

kuānwéixiàn jǐnyònggōng gōngfūdào zhìsètōng

宽为限 紧用功 工夫到 滞塞通

I will give myself lots of time to study, and I will study hard. If I devote enough time and effort,59 I will thoroughly understand.

要给自己宽裕的时间读书,要加紧用功。当自己的工夫成熟了,自然一切都明了。

xīnyǒuyí suízhájì jiùrénwèn qiúquèyì

心有疑 随札记 就人问 求确义

If I have a question, I will make a note of it. I will ask the person who has the knowledge for the right answer.

心里如有疑问,要随手把它记录下来,向有学问的人请教,为的是要求取一个正确的解答。

59 If I do not understand part of a book I am reading, I should read it again and again, even if for a thousand times. Its meaning will come to me in time. 古人说:「读书千遍其义自见」。意思是说,读书如有不明白的地方,要多念几遍,念多了它的意思自然就懂了。

fángshìqīng qiángbìjìng jīànjié bǐyànzhèng

房室清 墙壁净 几案洁 笔砚正

I will keep my room neat, my walls uncluttered and clean, my desk tidy and my brush60 and inkstone61 properly placed.

房间要保持整齐清洁,墙壁要保持干净,自己的书桌要保持整洁,毛笔砚台要放端正。

mòmópiān xīnbùduān zìbújìng xīnxiānbìng

墨磨偏 心不端 字不敬 心先病

If my ink block62 is ground unevenly, it shows I have a poor state of mind. When words are written carelessly, showing no respect, this shows my state of mind has not been well.

墨条如果被磨的偏向一边,就会显示出自己的心不端正。如字写的潦草不恭敬,就会表示自己的心地不正常。

60 “Brush” here means Chinese writing brush. “笔”,指中国人写字用的毛笔。
61 “Inkstone” is a stone stand used for preparing the ink used in Chinese brush calligraphy. “砚”是砚台,拿来磨墨用的文具,多数都是石做的。
62 “Ink block” is a solid ink piece. A person grinds it with water against the inkstone to make ink for writing Chinese brush calligraphy. “墨”是指墨条,加水在砚台上磨成墨汁,写毛笔字时所用。

lièdiǎnjí yǒudìngchù dúkànbì huányuánchù

列典籍 有定处 读看毕 还原处

My books63 should be classified, placed on the bookshelves, and in their proper places. After I finish reading a book, I will put it back where it belongs.

书籍归类后,要按次序排放在书厨或书架上,要有它们固定的位置。书读看完毕后,要放还原处。

suīyǒují juànshùqí yǒuquēhuài jiùbǔzhī

虽有急 卷束齐 有缺坏 就补之

Even if I am in a hurry, I still must neatly roll up and bind the open bamboo scroll64 I have been reading. All missing or damaged pages ought to be immediately repaired.

虽然有急事,打开的书卷还是要卷起来捆绑整齐。见到有残缺损坏的地方,要马上把它修补好。

63 Here the term “books” refers to books on laws, constitutions, and the organizational systems of a nation. 法典章制之类的书籍。
64 “Scroll”, or “juan” (卷), means a bamboo scroll. It is an ancient book, in the form of a scroll made of bamboo slips with knife-carved or painted Chinese characters. Such books were used before paper was invented. “卷”是指竹简。发明纸以前,古人拿竹子削片,用尖刀在上面刻字或用漆写字。

fēishèngshū bǐngwùshì bìcōngmíng huàixīnzhì

非圣书 屏勿视 蔽聪明 坏心志

If it is not a book on the teachings of the saints and sages, it should be discarded and not even looked at. Such books can block my intelligence and wisdom, and will undermine my aspirations and sense of direction.

如果不是圣贤的书籍,要丢掉一律不看。这一类书籍会闭塞自己的聪明智慧,败坏自己的心志趣向。

wùzìbào wùzìqì shèngyǔxián kěxúnzhì

勿自暴 勿自弃 圣与贤 可驯致

Neither be harsh on myself, nor give up on myself. To be a person of high ideals, moral standards and virtue is something we can all attain in time.

我们要爱惜自己,不要甘于堕落。只要肯真干,成圣成贤是人人渐渐都可以做到的。

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